ClouNS - A Cloud-native Application Reference Model for Enterprise Architects

05 Sep 2016 , first release: 04 Sep 2016 Vienna, sokiara /, Licence: CC BY-NC-ND 2.0


This paper was presented at the 8th Workshop on Service-oriented Enterprise Architecture for Enterprise Engineering (SoEA4EE 2016). This workshop is being held in conjunction with EDOC 2016 conference in Vienna, Austria.

  • A reference model for cloud-native applications for enterprise architects is presented.
  • A full text version of the paper is provided via ResearchGate.
  • Informations how to cite the paper can be found here.


The capability to operate cloud-native applications can create enormous business growth and value. But enterprise architects should be aware that cloud-native applications are vulnerable to vendor lock-in. We investigated cloud-native application design principles, public cloud service providers, and industrial cloud standards. All results indicate that most cloud service categories seem to foster vendor lock-in situations which might be especially problematic for enterprise architectures. This might sound disillusioning at first. However, we present a reference model for cloud-native applications that relies only on a small subset of well standardized IaaS services. The reference model can be used for codifying cloud technologies. It can guide technology identification, classification, adoption, research and development processes for cloud-native application and for vendor lock-in aware enterprise architecture engineering methodologies.

Definition of a Cloud-native Application

A cloud-native application is a distributed, elastic and horizontal scalable system composed of (micro)services which isolates state in a minimum of stateful components. The application and each self-contained deployment unit of that application is designed according to cloud-focused design patterns and operated on a self-service elastic platform.

Reference Model

Details are explained in the paper (provided via Research Gate). The motivating background is presented in the following slides.